Our survival can be attributed to the ability to adapt. Physiological adaptations often begin to take place immediately when you start a new exercise program. Although many changes usually occur throughout the body, the most notable includes cardiovascular system, muscles, and bones. The first component of the body that responds to a new training stimulus is the neuromuscular system. The changes are due to the responsiveness of the motor units of the spine that stimulate the muscle fibres. Beginners can realize substantial strength gains of 25% or more within 3 to 6 months.
The adaptational changes and health implications associated with resistance exercise are dynamic and vary from one person to another. A long-lasting change can only be realized if the following conditions are fulfilled: systemic administration of sufficient stimulus; adaptation of individual; and the progressive introduction of a greater stimulus. The success of a workout program can be attributed to the effectiveness of an exercise prescription in manipulating the progression of resistance stimulus. Varying the design of a program and individualization are also vital to attaining success in a training plan.
Your body responds to any physical task through a series of integrated changes in function mostly involving the physiological system. The musculoskeletal system has to be activated and controlled during movements. The cardiovascular and the respiratory systems play a key role in sustaining movements of a long period. Frequent engagement in physical exercise contributes to the adaptations of the physiological systems thereby increasing the efficiency and capacity of the body. Several factors determine the magnitude of these changes. They include the initial level of body fitness, the force applied in training, the intensity and duration of training.
Detraining can occur when the training stimulus is removed thereby reversing the gains in efficiency and capacity of the body. There are various ways through which the body responds to exercise regimen and adapts to training and detraining. Episodes of resistance and aerobic exercise contribute to physiological response in the following systems of the body; endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular.
The plasticity of skeletal muscle as well as its adaptation to exercise has been widely investigated because of its essential role in exercise performance and the promotion of health. Engaging in a regular physical exercise positively affects organs of the body and decreases the risks of chronic disease like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Every bout of exercise that is performed contribute to a change in gene expression of the muscle under contraction. The cumulative effect of repeated bouts of exercise results in changes in the phenotype of muscle. Exercise stimuli lead to repetitive contraction of muscles thereby improving cardiovascular output. It regulates endothelial dysfunction and metabolic disorders like obesity and insulin resistance.
The physiology of mitochondria and its replication in response to physical training has a profound effect on health. Physical exercise is associated with the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial content is considered to be one of the profound effects of the adaptation. Research studies have shown that both numbers and content of the mitochondria can be enhanced through regular physical training. Mitochondria is the powerhouse of cells that fuel the production of energy. The energy is used in powering various cellular processes like the contraction of muscles. Mitochondria tend to be more in cells with a high and constant supply of energy. The fraction of the mitochondrion in cardiac muscle cells is more than 25% since a constant flow of energy is needed to keep the heart beating.
Although traditional endurance training is capable of increasing the ability of an individual to perform low load highly repetitive exercise, it has a marginal impact on muscular strength and anaerobic power. The ability to perform high load low repetitive exercise can be improved by resistance training. It has a marginal impact on endurance. Prescribing resistance training to athletes whose focus is improving endurance is inappropriate since it is a violation of the training specificity principle. The principles of training specificity dictate that training regimes should be capable of simulating athletes’ mode of exercise.